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Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Regulations

Pennsylvania Human Relations Act
(Act of Oct. 27, 1955 P.L. 744, as amended):
An act prohibiting certain practices of discrimination because of race, color, religious creed, ancestry, age, or national origin by employers, employment agencies, labor organizations, and others.

Equal Pay Act of 1963:
Requires all employees subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to provide equal pay for men and women performing substantially similar work.

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the provision of benefits or services under programs receiving federal financial assistance.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, in any term, condition, or privilege of employment (including hiring, firing, promotion and compensation) in all institutions with fifteen or more employees.

Executive Order 11246 and 11375 (1965 and 1967):
Requires federal contractors and subcontractors to eliminate employment discrimination and past discrimination through affirmative action.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967: 
Prohibits employers of twenty-five or more persons from discriminating against persons age 40 and over and restricts mandatory retirement requirements, except where age is a bona fide occupational qualification.

Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972:
Strengthened the power and expanded the jurisdiction of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in the enforcement of Title VII of the Civil rights Act of 1964. As a result, Title VII covers:

-all private employers of fifteen or more persons
-all educational institutions, public and private
-state and local governments
-public and private employment agencies
-labor unions with fifteen or more members
-joint Labor-Management committees for apprenticeship and training

Title IX, Education Amendment Action of 1972:
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex against employees or students in any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Extends coverage of the Equal Pay Act.

Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Rehabilitation Act of 1974:

Prohibits discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disability or handicap, requires affirmative action and the provision of “reasonable accommodations” to ensure program accessibility.

Vietnam-Era Veterans Readjustment Act of 1974:

Prohibits discrimination against Vietnam-era veterans by federal contractors and the U.S. government and requires affirmative action.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978 Amendment of Title VII):
Prohibits discrimination against women because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions; requires that they be treated as all other employees for employment-related purposes, including benefits.

National Labor Relations Act and Related Laws:

Discrimination on the basis of race, religion, or national origin may violate rights arising under these laws.

Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986, 1990, 1996):

Establishes penalties for employers who knowingly hire illegal aliens; prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of national origin or citizenship.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990:

A comprehensive civil rights legislation created to help integrate persons with disabilities not only into the workplace but into every segment of society. The act has provisions that address five areas: employment; accessibility of public services, including public transportation; public accommodations; telecommunications; and miscellaneous provisions including prohibiting retaliation against individuals seeking to enforce rights under the act.

Employers and institutions that provide public services, including the University, must provide reasonable accommodations to make employment and programs accessible to otherwise qualified individuals.

Many or the provisions of the ADA are similar to those of Sections 503 and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The ADA extends the remedies and procedures found in Title VII to persons with disabilities, and incorporates the provisions for a jury trial and compensations for damages added by the Civil Rights Act of 1991.

Civil Rights Act of 1991:

Overruled a number of Supreme Court decisions handed down from 1989-1991 that were perceived to have unduly narrowed the rights of individuals to protect themselves from employment discrimination.

Provides remedies for intentional discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace; to conform statutory authority and provide statutory guidelines for the adjudication of disparate impact suits under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et. seg.); and expands the scope of relevant civil rights statutes in order to provide adequate protection to victims of discrimination.